Additives are ingredients added to a substance for the purpose of altering its characteristics – stability, flavour, cost, performance. Smoking food, honey, spices and vinegar are natural additives that are often used in the preservation of food. In times before regulation of foods, unscrupulous vendors were found to use such additives as chalk and ground bone as a cheap substitute for white flour.
The National Food Authority is responsible for applications regarding additives in Australia. Toxicity testing is required before a new additive will be accepted for use in food, including the effects a substance will have in large doses, at low levels over time, on reproduction, development and genetics. Animal testing is standard practice. The lack of concern over animal cruelty issues is reflected in the paucity of reference material available from the CSIRO library, while they have over 50 entries concerning ethics, only two directly refer to animal experimentation. 11.
The US Food and Drug Administration have produced A Primer on Food Additives which is forthright in stating: “When an additive is tested, it is usually fed in large doses over an extended period to at least two kinds of animals”
However, proven toxicity is no guarantee that an additive will not go on being used. Saccharin and Cyclamates “may cause cancer in animals” 13, 47 So great is the risk that cyclamates have been banned in the US. “Saccharin continues to be used because Congress granted it a special exemption”!
There is a lot of anecdotal evidence regarding the dangers of some synthetic additives, but because it is a “$10 billion dollar a year business” (in the US alone), we can assume that there are vested interests behind the promotion of additives in our food.
While it is true that ” the preservation of foods is the major and legitimate use of food additives” 1. So too are the concerns of consumers that the additives be safe and ethical in their development. Indeed, it has been estimated that less than one percent of additive use is for food preservation, the rest is cosmetic.
* All additives of possible or definite animal derivation are marked thus *
Additives in use in Australia include:
100 Curcumin, yellow colouring derived from the root of the curcuma plant, but can be artificially produced. Used in food and fabric dye, also cheese, marg, baked sweets and fish fingers. 1, 48
* 101 Riboflavin, vitamin and colouring, occurs naturally in greenveges, eggs, milk, liver and kidney. Used in marg and cheese. 48
102 Tartrazine, also called FD&C Yellow No. 5. Yellow colouring. An azo dye known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA do not recognise this)and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA estimates 1:10 000). Used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups. Banned in Norway and Austria. 96,13, 47
104 Quinoline, colouring also called D&C Yellow No.10. Used in lipsticks hair products, colognes. Also in a wide range of medications. Banned in Australia, USA and Norway 47
107 Yellow 7g Banned in Australia 47, 96
110 Sunset Yellow FCF, or FD&C Yellow No. 6. Azo dye and coal tar derivative. The third most commonly used food colouring. Orange colouring used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish. synthetic. also in many medications including Berocca, Polaramine, Ventolin syrup. Can provoke allergic reactions such as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and hyperactivity; and increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway. 40, 47
*120 Cochineal, carminic acid, colouring made from insects, now widely replaced by Ponceau 4R (see cochineal) 48
122 Azorubine, colouring, coal tar derivative, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Carmoisine E122 is banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway. 96
123 Amaranth, purple colouring derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name. For commercial purposes is a synthetic colourant derived from coal tar, which can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA in 1976, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries. 40, 48, 96
124 Ponceau 4R, red colouring, synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Banned in USA & Norway. 96
127 Erythrosine, also known as FD&C Red No. 3. Cherry-red colouring used in cherries, canned fruit, sweets, bakery, snack foods, synthetic. Was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990. Banned in January 1990, but not recalled by the US FDA. Still in use in Australia. Banned in Norway. 96
128 Red 2g, Banned in Australia and many other places except the UK 47, 96
129 Allura Red AC, also called FD&C Red No. 40. Orange-red colouring used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic. Introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test results. Allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice. Banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway 48, 65, 96
131 Patent Blue,banned in Australia, USA and Norway. 47, 96
132 Indigotine, also called FD&C Blue No. 2, Indigo carmine, and Blue X. Deep blue colouring, commonly added to tablets and capsules. Also used in ice cream, sweets and baked goods, synthetic coal tar derivative. Banned in Norway. 47, 96
133 Brilliant Blue FCF, also known as FD&C Blue Dye No.1. Blue colouring used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminum lake (solution) or ammonium salt. Banned in Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway. 47, 96
140 Chlorophyll, green colouring occurring naturally in all plants. Used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics.
141 Chlorophyll-copper complex, colouring
142 Green S green colouring, synthetic coal tar derivative, used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes. Banned inSweden, USA and Norway. 47, 96
150 Caramel, colouring made from sucrose.
151 Brilliant Black BN, colouring, coal tar derivative. In brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes. Banned in Denmark, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway 96
153 Carbon black, charcoal pigment, only the vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia. In jams, jelly crystals, liquorice.
154 Brown FK, Banned in USA, Norway 96
155 Brown or Chocolate Brown HT, colouring, coal tar and azo dye, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Also known to induce skin sensitivity. Banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway 96
* 160 Carotenoids, yellow and red colourings derived from plant and animal sources. The yellow pigment in egg yolks and butterfat is caused by hydroxylated carotenoids. Carotenoids are important in cancer research at the moment for their antioxidant qualities and since they are in greater abundance in yellow and red vegetables than anywhere else, they are probably the best source of them.
160a Caretene, yellow or orange colouring. Rich in vitamin A, found in carrots, and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables.
160b Annatto, red colouring, a carotenoid derived from an Amazonian rainforest tree (Bixa orellana) where the people use it as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant. In the western world it is used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes. Known to cause urticaria (nettle rash) 5, 47
160e Beta-apo-8 carotenal, colouring
160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8 carotenioic acid, colouring
160g Canthaxanthin, orange colouring, may be derived from sunflowers, seaweed or msuhrooms. Used in foods such as baked goods, barbecue sauce, butter, cheese, fruit drinks, pizza, salad dressings, soups and tomato products; as well as feed additive to change the colour of chickens’ skin and egg yolks. Also available as an oral tanning preparation., and used to colour tablet coating. May cause skin discolouration, amenhorrea, retinal growths, nausea, diarrhea and urticaria especially in those taking tanning medications 47
161 Xanthophylls – lutein, yellow colouring derived from plants, is naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks. 48
* 161 Xanthophylls – canthaxanthin, colouring possibly derived from animal sources (retinol), the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers. 48
162 Beetroot red, colouring, betanin derived from beets
163 Anthocyanins, the colouring matter of flowers and plants
170 Calcium carbonate, mineral salt, colouring used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders. May be derived from rock mineral or animal bones. Sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg. 13, 14, 3, 48
171 Titanium dioxide, colouring used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways
172 Iron oxide, black, yellow, red, colouring used in salmon and shrimp pastes.
181 Tannic acid, clarifying agent in alcohol, derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees. Occurs naturally in tea. 48
200 Sorbic acid, preservative. Potassium Sorbate. Either obtained from berries, or synthesised from ketene. 48
201 Sodium sorbate, preservative
202 Potassium sorbate, preservative
203 Calcium sorbate, preservative
210 Benzoic acid also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid, carboxybenzene and others. Added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes. Preservative used in cosmetics, also used as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments. Can cause asthma, especially in those dependant on steroid asthma medications. Is also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222) Shown to provoke hyperactivity in children. Obtained from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia. 47, 48
211 Sodium benzoate, preservative. Webster’s dictionary describes the uses of this substance as: “antiseptic, as a food preservative, and to disguise taste, as of poor-quality food”. Orange soft drinks contain a high amount of it, upto 25mg per 250ml. Also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and lollies. Used in many oral medications including Actifed, Phenergan, and Tylenol. Known to causes nettle rash, and aggravate asthma. 47, 48
212 Potassium benzoate, preservative
213 Calcium benzoate, preservative
216 Propylparaben, preservative
218 Methylparaben, preservative
220 Sulphur dioxide, preservative derived from coal tar, All sulphur drugs are toxic and restricted in use. Sprayed on grapes after harvesting, often used in winemaking. Produced by combustion of sulphur or gypsum. Known to provoke asthma attacks, and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function See also Sulfites. 47, 48
221 Sodium sulphite, preservative, decontaminating agent used in fresh orange juice. See above.
222 Sodium bisulphite, preservative
223 Sodium metabisulphite, preservative, treating agent
224 Potassium metabisulphite, preservative
234 Nisin, preservative antibiotic found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste. derived from bacteria
235 Natamycin, mould inhibitor, derived from bacteria
249 Potassium nitrite, preservative, colour fixative, and curing agent for meat. Nitrites can effect the bodys ability to carry oxygen, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches. Not permitted in infant foods. 48
250 Sodium nitrite, preservative, colour fixative. May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; use is severely restricted in many countries. 40
251 Sodium nitrate, preservative, colour fixative. Also used in the manufacture of nitric acid and as a fertiliser, and in fermented meat products.
252 Potassium nitrate (saltpetre), preservative, colour fixative. May be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter. Also used in gunpowder, explosives and fertilisers, and in the preservation of meat. may provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; use is severely restricted in many countries. 40, 48
260 Acetic acid, main component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres. Used in pickles, chutneys, and sauces. 48
261 Potassium acetate, food acid
262 Sodium diacetate, food acid, acidity regulator
263 Calcium acetate, food acid, acidity regulator, by product in the manufacture of wood alcohol, used to make acetic acid (vinegar) and in the production of dyers mordants.
* 270 Lactic acid, food acid, acidity regulator. It is produced by heating and fermenting carbohydrates in milk whey, potatoes, cornstarch or molasses. Difficult for babies to metabolise. Used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks and infant formulas. Sometimes used in beer making. 13, 48
280 Propionic acid, preservative. All propionates are thought to be linked with migraine headaches. Commonly used in bread and flour products. Produced when bacteria decompose fibre. Can be derived commercially from ethylene and carbon monoxide, or propionaldehyde, or natural gas, or fermented wood pulp. Propionates occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration, and ruminants digestive tract. 13, 48
281 Sodium propionate, preservative, sodium salt of propionic acid
282 Calcium propionate, preservative, derived from propionic acid
283 Potassium propionate, preservative, pottasium salt of propionic acid
290 Carbon dioxide, propellant, preservative, coolant, derived from lime manufacture. 48
296 Malic acid, food acid, derived from fruit or synthetic. Not used for young children. 48
297 Fumaric acid, food acid used in soft drinks and cake mixes. Derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis or from the fermentation of glucose with fungi. It can be used to flavour, acidify, as an antioxidant or raising agent. 48
300 Ascorbic acid, anti-oxidant, flour treating agent: vitamin C, may be made synthetically from glucose. Naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables, and is added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals , frozen fish and wine.
301 Sodium ascorbate, anti-oxidant, salt of ascorbic acid
302 Calcium ascorbate, anti-oxidant, salt of ascorbic acid
303 Potassium ascorbate, anti-oxidant, salt of ascorbic acid
304 Ascorbyl palminate, anti-oxidant
306 Tocopherol concentrate, anti-oxidant found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize. Works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation. Used in margarine and salad dressings. 13, 48
307 Synthetic alpha tocopherol, a-tocopherol, anti-oxidant. synthetic
308 Gamma tocopherol, y-tocopherol, anti-oxidant. synthetic
309 Delta tocopherol, d-tocopherol, anti-oxidant. synthetic
310 Propyl gallate, anti-oxidant used to prevent rancidity in oily substances. Derived from nutgalls. May cause gastric irritation. Gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia. In oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging. 1, 47, 48
311 Octyl gallate, anti-oxidant, see propyl gallate
312 Dodecyl gallate, anti-oxidant, see propyl gallate
317 Erythorbic acid, anti-oxidant, produced from sucrose.
318 Sodium erythorbate, anti-oxidant, derived from 317
319 tert-Butyl hydroquinone, anti-oxidant, petroleum based
320 Butylated hydroxy-anisole BHA, anti-oxidant. Petroleum derivative. Retards spoilage due to oxidation. Not permitted in infant foods. Can provoke an allergic reaction in some people. Used in edible oils, chewing gum, polyethylene food wraps. May trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity; and estrogenic effects. BHA is banned in Japan; in 1958 & 1963 official committees of experts recommended that BHT be banned in the UK, however due to industry pressure it was not banned; McDonald’s eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986. see also Butyl compounds. 40, 47, 48 Recommend also entry on Estrogen
321 Butylated hydroxy-toluene BHT, anti-oxidant, Petroleum derivative. see above entry.
* 322 Lecithin, anti-oxidant, emulsifier. Derived from soya beans, or sometimes eggs, peanuts or corn. Non toxic, it is used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder. 48
* 325 Sodium Lactate, food acid. possibly derived from milk. (lactic acid)
* 326 Potassium lactate, food acid. can be derived from milk. (lactic acid)
* 327 Calcium lactate, food acid. can be derived from milk. (lactic acid)
* 328 Ammonium lactate, food acid. can be derived from milk. (lactic acid)
* 329 Magnesium lactate, acidity regulator, flour treating agent, food acid. can be derived from milk. (lactic acid)
330 Citric acid, food acid. Naturally derived from citrus fruit, acts also as an antioxidant . Used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products.
331 Sodium citrates, food acid
332 Potassium citrates, food acid
333 Calcium citrates, food acid
334 Tartaric acid, food acid obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice.
335 Sodium tartrate, food acid
336 Potassium tartrates, food acid
337 Potassium sodium tartrates, food acid
338 Phosphoric acid, food acid. Derived from phosphate ore, used in cheese products.
339 Sodium phosphates, mineral salt. Also used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing.
340 Potassium phosphates, mineral salt
* 341 Calcium phosphates, mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used in medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels.
343 Magnesium phosphates, mineral salt. Anticaking agent found in salt substitutes.
350 DL-Sodium malates, food acid
351 Potassium malates, food acid
352 DL-Calcium malates, food acid
353 Metatartaric acid, food acid
354 Calcium tartrate, food acid
355 Adipic acid, food acid (from the root adipose: pertaining to fat?)
357 Potassium adipate, food acid
365 Sodium fumarate, food acid, , salt of fumaric acid, derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis
366 Potassium fumarate, food acid
367 Calcium fumarate, food acid
375 Niacin, colour retention agent
380 Tri-ammonium citrate, food acid
381 Ferric ammonium citrate, food acid derived from citric acid, used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas.
400 Alginic acid, thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed. Used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt.
401 Sodium alginate, thickener and vegetable gum
402 Potassium alginate, thickener and vegetable gum
403 Ammonium alginate, thickener and vegetable gum
404 Calcium alginate, thickener and vegetable gum
405 Propylene glycol alginate, thickener and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum. see separate entry.
406 Agar, thickener and vegetable gum, sometimes used as a laxative. Derived from a red seaweed. Found in manufactured meats and ice cream. see Agar-agar.
407 Carrageenan, thickener and vegetable gum. A fibre extracted from seaweed. It has recently been linked with cancer because it may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product, this results in ethylene chlorohydrin forming, a highly carcinogenic compound. linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive. However, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut. 8, 40
410 Locust bean gum, derived from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua, a native tree of South America or the Mediterraean depending on which book you read. Thickener and vegetable gum. Used in lollies, cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks. Carob is It is frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute. 1, 3, 48
412 Guar gum, thickener derived from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin. Fed to cattle in the US. od can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced cholesterol levels. 48
413 Tragacanth, gum thickener. Resin form the tree Astragalus gummifer. A water soluble gum, used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets. Also used as a binder in cosmetics. 47, 48
414 Acacia, (gum arabic) thickener and gum. Derived from the sap of Acacia Sengal. It is water soluble and easily broken down by the human digestive system.
415 Xanthan gum, thickener and gum. derived from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium. 48
416 Karaya gum, thickener. derived from the tree Sterculia urens from central India. Often used in conjunction with Carob (add 410), in ice cream, custard and sweets. Used as a filler for its capability to multiply its volume by 100 times with the additon of water. 48
420 Sorbitol, artificial sweetener, humectant derived from glucose: either obtained from berries, or synthesised. Used in lollies, dried fruit, pastries, pharmecuetical syrups and opthalmic preparations and is the seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics. 47
421 Mannitol, artificial sweetener and humectant. derived from seaweed, or the manna ash tree. Not permitted in infant foods, due to its ability to cause diahorrrea and kidney dysfunction. 48
* 422 Glycerol, humectant and sweetener sweet, oily colourless alcohol, derived by decomposition of natural fats with alkalis, usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or vegetable oil. Can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised from propylene or fermented from sugar. Used in flexible coatings on sausages and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka. “Glycerin has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumor promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free radical scavenging” 47
* 433, 435 Polysorbate (60), (65), (80) emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids. Also used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners. see separate entry. Polysorbates 20 and 40 are not permitted in Australia. 47, 48
440a Pectin, thickener and gum. Naturally occurring in the skins of apples, pectin is used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces.
* 441 Gelatine, boiled down skins, bones and hooves, yuk.
442 Ammonium phosphatides, emulsifier
450 Sodium and Potassium polyphosphates, mineral slats
450a Ammonium phosphatides, mineral salt, yeast nutrient in dough products, baking powder
460 Microcrystalline cellulose, anti-caking agent
461 Methylcellulose, thickener
464 Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, thickener and vegetable gum
465 methylethylcellulose, thickener and vegetable gum
466 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, thickener and vegetable gum
* 471 Mono- and diglyerides of fatty acids, emulsifiers
* 472a Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol, emulsifiers, glycerol possibly derived from animal fats
* 472b Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol, emulsifiers
* 472c Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol, emulsifiers
* 472d Tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol, emulsifiers
* 472e Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol, emulsifiers
473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids, emulsifiers
* 475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, emulsifiers
* 476 Polyglycerol esters of interesterfied ricinoleid acid, emulsifiers
477 Propylene glycol mon- and di- esters, emulsifier, derived from petroleum.
480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, emulsifier
* 481 Sodium stearoyl lactylate, flour treating agent
* 482 Calcium stearoyl lactylate, flour treating agent
* 491 Sorbitan mono-stearate, emulsifier
* 492 Sorbitan tri-stearate, emulsifier
500 Sodium carbonates, mineral salt
501 Potassium carbonates, mineral salt
536 Potassium ferrocyanide, anti-caking agent
503 Ammonium carbonates, mineral salt
504 Magnesium carbonate, mineral salt, anti-caking agent
507 Hydrochloric acid, acidity regulator
508 Potassium chloride, mineral salt
509 Calcium chloride, mineral salt, dreived from brine
516 Calcium sulphate, flour treatment agent, derived from limestone
529 Calcium oxide, mineral salt
535 Sodium ferrocyanide, anti-caking agent
536 Potassium ferrocyanide, anti-caking agent, by-product of coal gas production
541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidity regulator, emulsifier
* 542 Bone phosphate, anti-caking agent, derived from bones, used in dried milk for coffee machines
551 Silicon dioxide, anti-caking agent
552 Calcium silicate, anti-caking agent derived from limestone amd diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton)
553b Talc, anti-caking agent
554 Sodium aluminium silicate, anti-caking agent, used in salt, dried milk substitutes and flours, aluminium is known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer’s
556 Calcium aluminium silicate, anti-caking agent, derived from minerals, used in milk powders
558 Bentonite, anti-caking agent, clay. used to clarify wines
559 Kaolins, anti-caking agent, clay. wine clarifier
* 570 Stearic acid, anti-caking agent, possibly of animal origin See Stearates.
* 572 Magnesium stearate, anti-caking agent
575 Glucono delta-lactone, acidity regulator
577 Potassium gluconate,acidity regulator, firming agent
578 Calcium gluconate, acidity regulator, firming agent
579 ferrous gluconate, colour-retention agent derived from iron and glucose, used in olives, iron supplements 3, 48
620 L-Glutamic acid, flavour enhancer, amino acid present in many animal and vegetable proteins, derived commercially from bacteria. salt substitute 3, 48
621 Monosodium glutamate, flavour enhancer derived from the fermentation of molasses. Not permitted in infant foods. see MSG.
*622 Monopotassium L-glutamate, flavour enhancer, salt substitute
623 Calcium di-L-glutamate, flavour enhancer, salt substitute
624 Mono-ammonium L-glutamate, flavour enhancer, salt substitute
625 magnesium di-L-glutamate, flavour enhancer, salt substitute
*627 Di-sodium guanylate, flavour enhancer, isolated from sardines or yeast extract 48
* 631 Di-sodium inosinate, flavour enhancer. may be prepared from meat or sardines 48
636 Maltol, flavour enhancer derived from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood, oils and roasted malt. It may be produced synthetically. Used in artificial sweeteners.
637 Ethyl maltol, flavour enhancer derived from maltol. Used in flavours, essences, flavoured drinks.
900 Dimethypolysiloxane, anti-foaming agent, emulsifier, , silicone based
* 901 Beeswax, glazing agent, also used to wax fruit. See Bee products.
903 Carnauba wax, glazing agent. derived from a South American palm, this wax is used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit.
* 904 Shellac, glazing agent derived from insects. See separate entry.
905 Mineral Oil, white or petrolatum, glazing agent, sealing agent, release agent. Paraffin possibly responsible for bowel cancer. Used on sweets, in processing yeast, vitamin tablets
* 920 L-Cysteine mono-hydrochloride, flour treatment agent. Derived from animal hair and chicken feathers. 48
925 Chlorine, bleaching agent used to whiten flour
926 Chlorine dioxide, bleach used to whiten flour
928 Benzoyl peroxide, bleach used to whiten flour
931 Nitrogen, used in freezing and vacuum packing
932 Nitrous oxide, propellant used in whipping cream
950 Acesulphame potassium, artificial sweetener
951 Aspartame, artificial sweetener. See separate entry.
952 Cyclamates,calcium & sodium cyclamate, artificial sweetener known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage ot rats testicles and mouse embryos in tests. Banned in the US due its links with cancer. 13, 47 see entry on Aspartame.
953 Isomalt, humectant
954 Saccharins, calcium & sodium saccharin, artificial sweeteners derived from toluene (a known carcinogen). sweetening agent banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to strict labelling stating: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals” 3, 13, 48
957 Thaumatin, artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer. A protein derived of the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli Used to sweeten wines, bread and fruit. 48
965 Hydrogenated glucose syrup, humectant. Starch decomposed with digestive enzymes. Used in confectionery, dried fruits, low-joule foods. laxative in high concentrations. 48
967 Xylitol, humectant. Found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp. Caused kidney stones and a diuretic effect on test rats: A waste of time and the lives of the rats, for the JEFCA in 1983 ruled the tests invalid in relation to humans, the symptoms caused by ‘physiological disturbances’ in the rats! We can only imagine what conditions led to upset rats. Xylitol is used in low-joule foods, and carbohydratemodified sweets, icecream and jams. 48
1200 Polydextrose, humectant
1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone, stabiliser, dispersing agent, coating for tablets. Used in artificial sweeteners.
1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidine, clarifying agent for wine, colour stabiliser, colloidal stabiliser
1400 Dextrins, thickener and vegetable gums derived from tapioca or corn, foam stabiliser in beer, sweetner base, essences, sweets
1403 Bleached starch, thickener and vegetable gums, bleached with hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sulphur dioxide, or pottasium permangenate. problems with residual sulphur dioxide. sweets
1404 Oxidised starch, thickener and gum, bleached starch product with possible sulphur dioxide residues that may cause adverse reactions
1405 Enzyme-treated starches, thickener and vegetable gum
1410 Monostarch phosphate, thickener and gum
1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with phosphorous oxychloride, thickener and vegetable gum
1413 Phosphated starch phosphate, stabilising agent, thickener and vegetable gum, frozen foods, refridgerated sweets, soy infant formula
1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride, thickener and vegetable gum
1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate, thickener and vegetable gum
1422 Acetylated distarch adipate, thickener and vegetable gum
1440 Hydroxypropyl starch, thickener and vegetable gum, to maintain structure with variations in temperature. Derived from potatoes, wheat, maize, rice and barley, or roots like cassava. In frozen products
1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate, thickener and vegetable gum. Derived from potatoes, wheat, maize, rice and barley, or roots like cassava. In frozen products
1450 Starch sodium octeryl succinate, thickener and vegetable gum in dressings, whiteners, drink powders.
1505 Triethyl citrate, foam stabiliser
1510 Ethanol, fermented from sugar or other carbohydrates. Used as an additive carrier so frequently unlabelled except in alcoholic beverages. Causes reactions related to alcohol consumption in overdose. 48
* 1518 Tiacetin, humectant and solvent derived from glycerol, used to coat fresh fruit in the US.
1520 Propylene glycol, humectant, wetting agent, dispersing agent. Petroleum based. Its glycerin like taste has made it popular for children’s medications and other elixirs, and it is used in many topical creams and ointments. It is also used in cosmetics, hair products and deodorants. Propylene Glycol has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression, and cosmetic or pharmacuetical contact dermatitis. 3, 47, 48